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Formation of the Huayangchuan (Central China) carbonatite-associated REE-Nb-U polymetallic deposit constrained from monazite mineral chemistry and isotope systematics TEXT SIZE: A A A

The process of enrichment of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREE and HREE = Sm-Lu plus Y) in magmatic-hydrothermal systems, especially the carbonatite system, remains unclear. Here, we performed in-situ monazite element and isotopic analysis to investigate the genesis of the Huayangchuan REE-Nb-U polymetallic deposit in central China and the enrichment process of MREE and HREE during the evolution of the magmatic hydrothermal system. The Huayangchuan deposit is spatially associated with HREE-rich calcite carbonatites, which exist as two mineralization stages: the ores of the first stage are hosted by carbonatite itself; in the second stage, the ores are present as veins, dominantly by wall rocks around the carbonatite. The results of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) monazite U-Pb dating on the thin sections yielded Tera-Wasserburg lower intercept ages of 207 +/- 4 Ma and 206 +/- 5 Ma for carbonatite-hosted monazite and vein-type monazite, respectively. However, some monazite analysis points provide a wide Yanshanian age range (112-182 Ma). The lower intercept age of 206-207 Ma is explained as the mineralization age of the deposit, whereas the wide younger age with higher 238U/206Pb and lower 208Pb/232Th ratios may be ascribed to the loss of radioactive Pb, as the varying degrees of reworking resulted from the later Yanshanian tectono-thermal event. The monazite laser-ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) Sr-Nd isotopes from both carbonatite-hosted and wall-rock-hosted vein-type ores indicate that the Huayangchuan deposit is closely related to enriched mantle-derived (EM1) calcite carbonatite but locally affected by late fluid activation. Combined with the integrated age spectra, such reworking processes associated with new weak mineralization widely exist in other carbonatite-related deposits in the Lesser Qinling, but are not important for carbonatite-related mineral-ization in this area. Controlled by element behaviors, MREE and HREE are more likely to dissolve in hydro -thermal fluids, enabling their long-distance migration and deposition, than light REE (LREE) in some carbonatite systems, resulting in much higher MREE and HREE contents of the late monazite in the vein-type ores than those of the early carbonatite-hosted monazite. Therefore, it could be expected that there might be MREE and HREE enrichment and exploration potential in the periphery of some large carbonatite-related LREE-dominated deposits.

Publication name

 Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 157, Article Number 105450, DOI 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2023.105450, Published JUN 2023; Early Access MAY 2023


 Gao, Long -Gang; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, You -Wei; Bi, Xian-Wu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Dong, Shao-Hua; Luo, Jin-Cheng

Corresponding author(s) 

 Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, You -Wei
 huruizhong@mail.gyig.ac.cn; chenyouwei@mail.gyig.ac.cn
 Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Ore Deposit Geochem, Guiyang 550081, Peoples R China

Author(s) from IGCAS   Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, You -Wei; Gao, Long -Gang; Bi, Xian-Wu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Dong, Shao-Hua; Luo, Jin-Cheng

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