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Genesis of the Shangxu orogenic gold deposit, Bangong-Nujiang suture belt, central Tibet, China: Constraints from H, O, C, Si, He and Ar isotopes TEXT SIZE: A A A
Shangxu is an orogenic gold deposit in the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, central Tibet, China, formed in the Early Cretaceous orogene, related to convergence and collision between the Qiangtang and Lhasa terranes. The mineralization at Shangxu is hosted by Jurassic turbidite sedimentary rocks of the Mugagangri Group, and is associated with a regional fault system. Hydrothermal minerals develop muscovite, carbonate, sulfides and chlorite. Hydrothermal fluids record three main hydrothermal stages based on mineral paragenesis. The earliest is barren quartz stage (H1), which is pre-ore. During the early mineralization quartz-pyrite stage (H2a), defined by massive quartz veins with minor euhedral pyrite and gold, hydrothermal fluids had a delta O-18(fluid) of 6.1-6.4 parts per thousand, delta D of -74 to -116 parts per thousand, delta C-13(CO2) of -5.4 to -7.6 parts per thousand, and delta Si-30 of -0.1 parts per thousand. In the quartz-pyrite-sulfides stage (H2b), characterized by abundant quartz, granular pyrite, muscovite with minor chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and gold, fluids had a delta O-18(fluid) of 7-8.2 parts per thousand, delta D of -109 to -120 parts per thousand, delta C-13(CO2) of -9.6 parts per thousand and delta Si-30 of -0.1 to -0.2 parts per thousand. During the ankerite-sulfide stage (H3a), distinguished by abundant ankerite, muscovite, sulfides with minor quartz and chlorite, hydrothermal system had a fluid with delta O-18(fluid) of 4.9-5.3 parts per thousand, delta D of -125.3 parts per thousand, delta Si-30 of -0.1 parts per thousand, delta C-13(CO2) of -12.4 parts per thousand in quartz inclusion fluid and delta C-13(CO2) of -2.7 parts per thousand in ankerite. The calcite-sulfide stage (H3b) is characterized by calcite, sulfides, with minor quartz and chlorite. Quartz formed earlier than calcite from a fluid having a delta O-18(fluid) of 6.4 parts per thousand, delta D of -112.6 parts per thousand, delta Si-30 of -0.1 parts per thousand, and delta C-13(CO2) of -7.4 parts per thousand, after which calcite precipitated from a hydrothermal fluid with delta O-18(fluid) of 5.5-9 parts per thousand, delta C-13(CO2) of -0.5 to -2.8 parts per thousand. Hydrothermal fluids in H2b pyrite have He-3/He-4 ratios of 0.27-0.42Ra and Ar-40/Ar-36 ratios of 313-372.

The stable isotope composition of hydrothermal fluids from the Shangxu gold deposit is similar to that of typical orogenic gold deposits. The early stage (H1), methane-bearing fluids were probably sourced from the basin sediments, leading to precipitation of early barren quartz veins and siderite alteration. From the quartz-sulfide stage (H2) to carbonate-sulfide stage (H3), hydrothermal fluids were likely derived from dissolution of the marine carbonate cement from sedimentary host rocks during metamorphism at depth. The decreasing delta D and delta C-13 of the ore-forming fluids from early to late suggests mixing with delta C-13-depleted oxidized graphite in sedimentary rocks, meteoric waters or reation between delta D-depleted organic matters. Generally, these fluids were likely generated at depth through prograde metamorphic devolatilization of hydrous minerals in the deeper equivalents of the sedimentary rocks of the Mugagangri Group. Sulfur and gold, by inference, likely originated from sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite or the metasedimentary rocks between the greenschist and amphibolite facies, and migrated with the metamorphic fluids. During transportation to the site of deposition, gold-bearing fluids variably reacted with country rocks. 
 

Publication name

 ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS Volume: 127 Article Number: 103810 DOI: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103810 Published: DEC 2020

Author(s)

 Fang, Xiang; Tang, Juxing; Song, Yang; Beaudoin, Georges; Yang, Chao; Huang, Xiaowen

Corresponding author(s) 

 FANG Xiang1,2; SONG Yang1
 francisfx@126.com; songyang100@126.com  
 1. Chinese Acad Geol Sci, Beijing 100037, Peoples R China.
 2. Chinese Acad Geol Sci, Inst Mineral Resources, MNR Key Lab Metallogeny & Mineral Assessment, Beijing 100037, Peoples R China.

Author(s) from IGCAS   HUANG Xiaowen

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