LI Kai-xuan1, LENG Cheng-biao1*, REN Zhi1, LIU Fei1, XU De-ru1, YE Lin2, LUO Tai-yi2
(1. State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China;
2. State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China)
Abstract: Dispersed elements are irreplaceable raw materials in the field of high and new technology, and have been listed as critical mineral resources by international developed economies and countries. They have rarely formed solely independent ore deposits, but often occurred as associated components in base metallic sulfide deposits, bauxite deposits, and coal-bearing strata. Sphalerite in lead-zinc or tin-lead-zinc deposits is the main carrier of Ga, Ge, Cd, and In of dispersed elements which were incorporated into the sphalerite crystal lattice for substituting Fe, in most cases, in the form of extremely heterogeneous distribution. Previous studies have shown that the contents of Ga, Ge, and Cd are significantly different in different types and same types of lead-zinc deposits, and are even different in different sections of one lead-zinc deposit. Cd, Ga, and Ge tend to be enriched in the low temperature hydrothermal lead-zinc deposits, while In is usually enriched in the magmatic hydrothermal or VMS tin-rich lead-zinc deposits. In order to understand the enrichment and mineralization mechanisms of dispersed elements, the following scientific issues need to be further studied with attention. They include 1) the relationship between the different concentrations of Ga, Ge, Cd and the types of lead-zinc deposits, including the different and same types of lead-zinc deposits, 2) the mechanism for controlling the enrichment and depletion of Ga, Ge, Cd, and In in the mineral scale of sphalerite and ore body scale, 3) the role of Sn in the migration, enrichment, and precipitation processes of In, 4) whether or not the universality of "indium window" effect of sphalerite, and 5) the migration forms of Ga, Ge, Cd and In in different geo-hydrothermal systems.
Keywords: Dispersed elements；lead-zinc deposits；Ge；In；Ga；Cd
ACTA MINERALOGICA SINICA Vol. 41, No.3, 2021, page 225-233